A Level H2 Chemistry Syllabus 2020 | Ingel Soong

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A Level H2 Chemistry Syllabus

The following A Level H2 Chemistry Syllabus will be covered in Ingel’s class:

CORE IDEA 1 – MATTER

1. Atomic Structure

  • The nucleus of the atom: neutrons and protons, isotopes, proton and nucleon numbers
  • Electrons: electronic energy levels, ionisation energies, atomic orbitals, extranuclear structure

CORE IDEA 2 – STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES
2. Chemical Bonding

  • Ionic bonding, metallic bonding, covalent bonding and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding
  • Shapes of simple molecules and bond angles
  • Bond polarities and polarity of molecules
  • Intermolecular forces, including hydrogen bonding
  • Bond energies and bond lengths
  • Lattice structure of solids
  • Bonding and physical properties

3. The Gaseous State

  • Ideal gas behaviour and deviations from it
  • pV = nRT and its use in determining a value for Mr
  • Dalton’s Law and its use in determining the partial pressures of gases in a mixture

4. Theories of Acids and Bases

  • Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis theories of acids and bases

5. The Periodic Table

  • Periodicity of atomic and physical properties of the elements: variation with proton number across the third period (sodium to chlorine) and down the group (Group 2 and Group 17) of:
    (i) electronic configuration
    (ii) atomic radius and ionic radius
    (iii) ionisation energy
    (iv) electronegativity
    (v) melting point
    (vi) electrical conductivity
  • Periodicity of chemical properties of the elements in the third period:
    (i) variation in oxidation number and bonding of the oxides (sodium to sulfur only) and of the chlorides
    (sodium to phosphorus only)
    (ii) reactions of these oxides and chlorides with water
    (iii) acid/base behaviour of these oxides and the corresponding hydroxides
  • Periodicity of chemical properties of the elements down the group (Group 2 and Group 17):
    (i) as reducing agents (Group 2) and oxidising agents (Group 17)
    (ii) thermal stability of Group 2 carbonates and Group 17 hydrides

CORE IDEA 3 – TRANSFORMATION
6. The Mole Concept and Stoichiometry

  • Relative masses of atoms and molecules
  • The mole, the Avogadro constant
  • The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae
  • Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and gases)

7. Chemical Energetics: Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics (Gibbs Free Energy and
Entropy)

  • Enthalpy changes: ∆H, of formation; combustion; hydration; solution; neutralisation; atomisation; bond energy; lattice energy; electron affinity
  • Hess’ Law, including Born-Haber cycles
  • Entropy and Free Energy

8. Reaction Kinetics

  • Simple rate equations; orders of reaction; rate constants
  • Concept of activation energy
  • Effect of concentration, temperature, and catalysts on reaction rate
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
  • Enzymes as biological catalysts

9. Chemical Equilibria

  • Chemical equilibria: reversible reactions; dynamic equilibrium
    (i) factors affecting chemical equilibria
    (ii) equilibrium constants
    (iii) the Haber process

EXTENSION TOPICS
10. Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions
10.1 Acid-base Equilibria

  • Acid dissociation constants, Ka and the use of pKa
  • Base dissociation constants, Kb and the use of pKb
  • The ionic product of water, Kw
  • pH: choice of pH indicators
  • Buffer solutions

10.2 Solubility Equilibria

  • Solubility product; the common ion effect and complex ion formation

11. Organic Chemistry
11.1 Introduction

  • Empirical, molecular and structural formulae
  • Functional groups and the naming of organic compounds
  • Common terms for organic reactions and reactivities
  • Shapes of organic molecules; σ and π bonds

11.2 Isomerism

  • Isomerism: constitutional (structural); cis-trans; enantiomerism

11.3 Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes (exemplified by ethane)
    (i) free-radical substitution reactions
  • Alkenes (exemplified by ethene)
    (i) electrophilic addition, including Markovnikov’s rule
    (ii) reduction and oxidation reactions
  • Arenes (exemplified by benzene and methylbenzene)
    (i) influence of delocalised π electrons on structure and properties
    (ii) electrophilic substitution reactions
    (iii) oxidation of side-chain
  • Hydrocarbons as fuels

11.4 Halogen Derivatives

  • Halogenoalkanes
    (i) nucleophilic substitution
    (ii) elimination
  • Relative strength of the C-Hal bond
  • Unreactivity of halogenoarenes

11.5 Hydroxy Compounds

  • Alcohols (exemplified by ethanol)
    (i) formation of halogenoalkanes
    (ii) reaction with sodium; oxidation; dehydration
    (iii) the tri-iodomethane test
  • Phenol
    (i) its acidity; reaction with bases and sodium
    (ii) nitration of, and bromination of, the aromatic ring

11.6 Carbonyl Compounds

  • Aldehydes (exemplified by ethanal)
    (i) oxidation to carboxylic acid
    (ii) nucleophilic addition with hydrogen cyanide
    (iii) characteristic tests for aldehydes
  • Ketones (exemplified by propanone and phenylethanone)
    (i) nucleophilic addition with hydrogen cyanide
    (ii) characteristic tests for ketones

11.7 Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives

  • Carboxylic acids (exemplified by ethanoic acid and benzoic acid)
    (i) formation from primary alcohols and nitriles
    (ii) salt, ester and acyl chloride formation
  • Acyl chlorides (exemplified by ethanoyl chloride)
    (i) ease of hydrolysis compared with alkyl and aryl chlorides
    (ii) reaction with alcohols, phenols and primary amines
  • Esters (exemplified by ethyl ethanoate and phenyl benzoate)
    (i) formation from carboxylic acids and from acyl chlorides
    (ii) hydrolysis (under acidic and under basic conditions)

11.8 Nitrogen Compounds

  • Amines (exemplified by ethylamine and phenylamine)
    (i) their formation
    (ii) salt formation
    (iii) other reactions of phenylamine
  • Amides (exemplified by ethanamide)
    (i) formation from acyl chlorides
    (ii) neutrality of amides
    (iii) hydrolysis (under acidic and under basic conditions)
  • Amino acids (exemplified by aminoethanoic acid)
    (i) their acid and base properties
    (ii) zwitterion formation
  • Proteins
    (i) formation of proteins
    (ii) hydrolysis of proteins

12. Electrochemistry

  • Redox processes: electron transfer and changes in oxidation number (oxidation state)
  • Electrode potentials
    (i) standard electrode (redox) potentials, E⦵
    ; the redox series
    (ii) standard cell potentials, E⦵
    cell, and their uses
    (iii) batteries and fuel cells
  • Electrolysis
    (i) factors affecting the amount of substance liberated during electrolysis
    (ii) the Faraday constant; the Avogadro constant; their relationship
    (iii) industrial uses of electrolysis

13. An Introduction to the Chemistry of Transition Elements

  • General physical and characteristic chemical properties of the first set of transition elements, titanium to copper
  • Colour of complexes

A Level H1 Chemistry Syllabus

CORE IDEA 1 – MATTER

1. Atomic Structure

  • The nucleus of the atom: neutrons and protons, isotopes, proton and nucleon numbers
  • Electrons: electronic energy levels, ionisation energies, atomic orbitals, extranuclear structure

CORE IDEA 2 – STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

2. Chemical Bonding

  • Ionic bonding, metallic bonding, covalent bonding and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding
  • Shapes of simple molecules and bond angles
  • Bond polarities and polarity of molecules
  • Intermolecular forces, including hydrogen bonding
  • Bond energies and bond lengths
  • Lattice structure of solids
  • Bonding and physical properties

3. Theories of Acids and Bases

  • Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry theories of acids and bases
  • Acid dissociation constants, Ka
  • Base dissociation constants, Kb
  • The ionic product of water, Kw
  • pH: choice of indicators
  • Buffer solutions

4. The Periodic Table

  • Periodicity of atomic and physical properties of the elements: variation with proton number across the third period (sodium to chlorine) and down Group 17 of:
    (i) electronic configuration
    (ii) atomic radius and ionic radius
    (iii) ionisation energy
    (iv) electronegativity
    (v) melting point
    (vi) electrical conductivity
  • Periodicity of chemical properties of the elements in the third period:
    (i) variation in oxidation number and bonding of the oxides (sodium to sulfur only) and of the chlorides
    (sodium to phosphorus only)
    (ii) reactions of these oxides and chlorides with water
    (iii) acid/base behaviour of these oxides and the corresponding hydroxides
  • Periodicity of chemical properties of the elements down the group (Group 1 and Group 17):
    (i) as reducing agents (Group 1) and oxidising agents (Group 17)
    (ii) thermal stability of Group 17 hydrides

5. The Mole Concept and Stoichiometry

  • Relative masses of atoms and molecules
  • The mole, the Avogadro constant
  • The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae
  • Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and gases)
  • Redox processes: electron transfer and changes in oxidation number (oxidation state)

6. Chemical Energetics: Thermochemistry

  • Enthalpy changes: ∆H, of formation; combustion; neutralisation; bond energy; lattice energy
  • Hess’ Law

7. Reaction Kinetics

  • Simple rate equations; orders of reaction; rate constants
  • Concept of activation energy
  • Effect of concentration, temperature, and catalysts on reaction rate
  • Heterogeneous catalysts
  • Enzymes as biological catalysts

8. Chemical Equilibria

  • Chemical equilibria: reversible reactions; dynamic equilibrium
    (i) factors affecting chemical equilibria
    (ii) equilibrium constants
    (iii) Haber process

EXTENSION TOPIC – MATERIALS

9.1 Nanomaterials

  • Nanomaterials and nanoparticles
  • Heterogenous catalysis
  • Structure and properties of graphene

9.2 Polymers

  • Empirical, molecular and structural formulae
  • Functional groups and the naming of organic compounds
  • Common terms for organic reactions
  • Isomerism: constitutional (structural); cis-trans
  • Shapes of organic molecules; σ and π bonds
  • Alkanes (as exemplified by ethane)
    (i) combustion and substitution reaction
  • Alkenes (as exemplified by ethene)
    (i) combustion and addition reactions
  • Halogenoalkanes (as exemplified by bromoethane)
    (i) substitution
    (ii) elimination
  • Aldehydes (as exemplified by ethanal)
    (i) oxidation to carboxylic acid
    (ii) reduction
  • Ketones (as exemplified by propanone)
    (i) reduction
  • Alcohols (as exemplified by ethanol)
    (i) combustion
    (ii) oxidation to carboxylic acids
    (iii) elimination
  • Carboxylic acids (as exemplified by ethanoic acid)
    (i) ester formation
    (ii) amide formation
  • Structure and uses of polymers

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